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Incident Reporting Form

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*** for Molten Metal Explosion Force Incidents only

Force 1 Explosions, also referred to as “steam explosions” and commonly called “pops,” occur when molten metal traps water, which quickly turns to steam and expands more than 1,000 times. These explosions are characterized by metal dispersed a short distance, up to about 15 feet (4.5 meters) and often less than 10 pounds (4.5kg) of metal, with little or no property damage.

Force 2 Explosions are violent steam explosions. As with Force 1 explosions, water is trapped and turns to steam. But in this case, possibly due to confinement, the steam pressure is not as easily relieved and builds up to the point that considerably more metal is thrown a greater distance. The Force 2 explosion is characterized by metal dispersed 15 to 50 feet (4.5 to 15 meters), often to the roof of the plant, and there may be some accompanying property damage.

Force 3 Explosions are catastrophic events arising from reaction of molten metal with oxygen from water and/or air, with other oxidizing agents, or with contaminants such as fertilizer. They are characterized by considerable property damage and metal dispersed more than 50 feet (15 meters) away; often the metal has disappeared and what remains is a white powder, magnesium oxide.
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International Magnesium Association

International Magnesium Association
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